Turcja - Türkiye - Turkey

Antemurale Christianitatis – the Bulwark of Christianity – is an important constituent of many national cultures in Central Europe. It is also the experience of the Poland and Poles. Several centuries of the Polish Republic and the Ottoman Empire as neighbours are still alive in the Polish tradition and culture. And what is interesting is that our perception of Turkey is burdened with the load of national mythology which comes from the turn of the 20th century. Its foundations still lie in the works of the Polish Nobel Prize winner Henryk Sienkiewicz from over a hundred years ago. What is more, Sienkiewicz’s glasses have become stuck on our noses so perfectly that many people forget they are looking through them at the past of our part of Europe. It is time to take them off . It is time to have a look from the other side as well.
To what extent can we talk about the European limes of the Turkish Empire? About the civilising mission of Turkey in our part of the continent? About Turkish heritage – denied, unwanted, or maybe just forgotten?
At the same time we are intrigued by Turkish experience of the 20th century; the Turkish road to constructing a modern and democratic country; the complicated relations between tradition and development.
When raising these issues, we do not hesitate to ask about Turkey’s European horizon – in the past, today, and perhaps in future. Both the 90th anniversary of the signing of a treaty on friendship between the Second Polish Republic and the Turkish Republic (2013) as well as the 600th anniversary of establishing diplomatic relations between the First Polish Republic and the Ottoman Empire (2014) make an excellent pretext to do just that.

    • 1
      Editorial
      Jacek Purchla

      Antemurale Christianitatis – the Bulwark of Christianity – is an important constituent of many national cultures in Central Europe. It is also the experience of the Poland and Poles. Several centuries of the Polish Republic and the Ottoman Empire as neighbours are still alive in the Polish tradition and culture. And what is interesting is that our perception of Turkey is burdened with the load of national mythology which comes from the turn of the 20th century. Its foundations still lie in the works of the Polish Nobel Prize winner Henryk Sienkiewicz from over a hundred years ago. What is more, Sienkiewicz’s glasses have become stuck on our noses so perfectly that many people forget they are looking through them at the past of our part of Europe. It is time to take them off . It is time to have a look from the other side as well.
      To what extent can we talk about the European limes of the Turkish Empire? About the civilising mission of Turkey in our part of the continent? About Turkish heritage – denied, unwanted, or maybe just forgotten?
      At the same time we are intrigued by Turkish experience of the 20th century; the Turkish road to constructing a modern and democratic country; the complicated relations between tradition and development.
      When raising these issues, we do not hesitate to ask about Turkey’s European horizon – in the past, today, and perhaps in future. Both the 90th anniversary of the signing of a treaty on friendship between the Second Polish Republic and the Turkish Republic (2013) as well as the 600th anniversary of establishing diplomatic relations between the First Polish Republic and the Ottoman Empire (2014) make an excellent pretext to do just that.

    • 4
      Worth a Look

  • European horizons of Turkey
    • 12
      A Shared Quest
      Olga Wysocka

      More than two years ago, when we began preparing a cultural programme for the occasion of the 600th anniversary of Polish-Turkish diplomatic relations, at the Adam Mickiewicz Institute, it turned out that our Turkish partners had very little knowledge of Poland, and although they knew such names as Mickiewicz, Kantor, Grotowski, Szajna, and even the football player Robert Gadocha, they honestly admitted they were uninformed. Similarly, we did not know much more about the Turkish culture, let alone its recent representatives, while the fi lmmaker Fatih Akin, the pianist and composer Fazıl Say, the stage director Şahika Tekand, or the visual artist Ali Kazma have enjoyed international recognition with respect to culture.

    • 16
      Lehistan and the Sublime Porte – Overlapping Worlds
      Adam Balcer

      For a few hundred years, the Common wealth of Poland–Lithuania and the Ottoman Empire coexisted, connected by multidimensional ties unique on the European scale. This exceptional historical heritage is hardly known in Poland or Turkey, let alone throughout Europe.

    • 34
      Poland and Turkey – Hostility or Peaceful Co-existence?
      Tomasz Ciesielski

      It was only in the 20th century that historians began to revise the hitherto existing outlook on the condition of Polish-Turkish relationships through the ages, increasingly emphasising their peaceful aspect.

    • 50
      Ottoman-Polish Relations from the Turkish Perspective. Written, Unwritten and Remembered
      Hacer Topaktaş

      The Ottomans generally saw the Poles as düşman (enemy) or küff ar (infi dels); and in the same way, for the Poles the Ottoman Turks were the main threat for the state and for other values.

    • 62
      Polish Connections with the Modernisation of Turkey. A Shared History from the Perspective of Oblivion
      Beata K. Nykiel

      Hundreds of Poles passed through the country on both sides of the Bosphorus, and while most of these were indeed military personnel, there was also no shortage of individuals whose skills and education equipped them to play an outstanding role in many, sometimes unexpected quarters.

    • 72
      “When a Turk Waters His Horse at the Vistula”…
      Piotr Nykiel

      During their time in Eastern Galicia, the Turkish offi cers and soldiers were billeted in villages and towns inhabited by Poles, Jews, and Ruthenians. The direct contacts forged at that time, sometimes in broken German, but more usually through gestures – helped to break down many of the stereotypes.

  • Common heritage?
    • 80
      Topkapı Palace – Court and the Residence of the Sultans
      A. Halûk Dursun

      Topkapı Palace, the second palace built after the Ottoman conquest, gained its fi nal architectural layout with modifi cations in the mid-19th century. The name “Topkapı” was given to the palace to refl ect the power of the empire with its architecture, after the seaside palace in Sarayburnu of the same name was destroyed by a fi re in 1863.

    • 100
      “Mobile palaces”. Turkish Tents in the Collection of the Wawel Royal Castle
      Magdalena Piwocka

      The tents from the Battle of Vienna did not originally belong to the furnishings of the residence in Krakow. This collection was created in the interwar period, in the heroic time of building the Wawel Museum within the walls of the royal seat.

    • 112
      The Türckische Cammer of the Electors of Saxony
      Holger Schuckelt

      The Türckische Cammer (Turkish Chamber) of the Electors of Saxony is one of the most important collections of its kind in the world. Unlike the “Türkenbeuten” accumulated elsewhere in the late 17th century, Dresden gradually acquired – over the course of several centuries – a stock of exotic objects which were only partly associated with the participation of Saxon troops in military campaigns against the Turks. Far more important for its development were diplomatic gifts, as well as pre-planned purchases and commissioned works.

    • 122
      The Turks and Central Europe
      Michał Jurecki

      Searching for traces left by Turkish culture in the territory of Central Europe is usually a long-term process and a specifi c and highly intriguing discovery of something that has seemingly already been discovered.

  • Dilemmas, Diagnoses, visions
    • 147
      Murat Belge, Stanisław Obirek, Ayşe Çavdar, Hakan Yılmaz

      Unlike in the European West, where the development of national identities has been stimulated by political, social, and economic changes, in the central and south-eastern parts of the continent the sense of national autonomy has been predominantly built upon cultural, linguistic, and religious foundations. Therefore, it would be impossible to speak about the identity of nations in our part of the continent without referring to religion. What is more, religion plays an important role as a means in political mobilisation and self-identifi cation of both individuals and entire communities – especially in the context of the current deepening crisis and uncertainty.

    • 162
      Janusz Sepioł

      “Geographical depth” is the emphasis that Turkey is at once a European and an Asian state, at once Middle Eastern and Caucasian. It is not only an old Mediterranean country. It is a central country whose identity cannot be reduced to a single geographic and cultural region.

    • 170
      Europe as Civilisation or the Civilisation of Europe? Turkey and the EU
      Karol Bieniek

      The 1963 Ankara Association Agreement was an expression of the continuation of modernising processes and approchement with the EU. The vision of Turkey as a state with links to Europe not only by virtue of its centuries-long military presence but also politically, through membership of an international organisation uniting most of the countries of the Old Continent, became the dominant one. Yet at the same time, that part of Turkish society for which the role and meaning of religion were a major issue remained in opposition to the main discourse.

    • 176
      The Turkey-EU Relations: A New Start or a Vicious Circle?
      Hasan Ünal

      It is high time the Turkey–EU relationship was founded on a sound and sustainable basis. The present relationship does not satisfy either side.

  • Ideas in practice
    • 184
      Creating Culture. On Private Patronage in Turkey
      Özalp Birol

      Özalp Birol talks to Beata K. Nykiel

    • 200
      Minbar in a Church
      Janusz Smaza

      The 1699 treaty signed by the Poles and Turks, who were then leaving the fortress and the rest of the territory they had previously won, contained a caveat specifying that the minaret must be preserved by the cathedral. It still stands there today. However, there is no clear information explaining the reasons why the minbar also remains in the church.

  • European Capitals of Culture
    • 208
      Byzantium. Constantinople. Istanbul. The European Capital of Culture
      Joanna Sanetra-Szeliga

      A city with so rich a history, tradition, and contemporary cultural life did not need to fi nd a way to reach the consciousness of Europeans. Nonetheless, it was decided that it would be worthwhile to remind both the citizens of the city and Europeans that for centuries Istanbul had been the centre of European culture, and its history is inseparable from that of the continent.

  • By myself
    • 216
      „Tête de Turc”
      Gündüz Vassaf

      For a few hundred years, the Common wealth of Poland–Lithuania and the Ottoman Empire coexisted, connected by multidimensional ties unique on the European scale. This exceptional historical heritage is hardly known in Poland or Turkey, let alone throughout Europe.

    • 224
      Tsargrad Seen by Central Europeans
      Peter Michalík

      The image of the city found upon arrival in the historical centre of Istanbul is not identical with the image of the city that surrounds him/her: in the walls of buildings and busy arteries the visitor recognises a refl ection of the former surroundings which, unlike its material form, have not been erased from the image of the city by the dynamics of several years of modernisation.